Healthy gums are important for our oral health and a confident smile. Because they surround the mouth and teeth, they effectively protect against damage to deeper tissues and provide support for the teeth. Healthy gums are coral-pink in color and firm to the touch. Discoloration, redness, swelling, and increased susceptibility to bleeding are indications of gingivitis, which may be caused by poor oral hygiene or other diseases. Irritation, tenderness, or pain is most often observed when brushing or flossing, where bleeding may also occur. It is important to identify and treat the cause of inflamed gums and, despite the pain, maintain regular oral hygiene.


Gingivitis or inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis is an advanced condition of inflamed gums and can lead to periodontal disease and tooth loss. It starts in two to four days with small ulceration accompanied by the accumulation of plaque, which may be the result of poor oral hygiene. This ulcer develops a swelling where inflammatory cells accumulate and micro-organisms build up. If the condition does not improve, the swelling increases, more inflammatory cells become involved, and the pain increases.

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Gingivitis is most often caused by poor oral hygiene, which allows plaque to build upon the gums and teeth. Plaque is a film made up of bacteria and food particles that are deposited on the teeth over time. If it stays on the teeth for more than a few days, it can mineralize into tartar, which cannot be removed by yourself, but by a dentist or an oral hygienist. Unremoved tartar results in sore gums and inflammation of the gums.


During pregnancy, you may develop swollen, red gums that hurt and bleed when you brush. Tooth sensitivity and bad breath may also be present. This condition is called pregnancy gingivitis and usually occurs between the 2nd and 8th months of pregnancy.

Hormonal changes and an increased immune response to microbes in the plaque on the teeth make the dentition more susceptible to inflammation. Inadequate oral hygiene is a major contributory factor to the worsening of the condition. If inadequately treated, gingivitis can progress to periodontal disease, which poses a risk of premature birth and low birth weight of the newborn.

Vitamin deficiency

A deficiency of vitamins, especially B-complex vitamins and vitamin C, can cause swelling of the gums. Vitamin C is an important factor in the formation of certain components (collagen) for normal gum function, so its deficiency is most often manifested by bleeding, gum sores, and wound healing.

Microbial infections

Infections caused by fungi and viruses can cause swelling of the gums. The most common viral infection of the oral mucosa is primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). It manifests itself as numerous mouth ulcers, which occur mainly in childhood and last 10-14 days.

The swelling may be caused by white deposits on the mucous membranes, which are caused by fungi. The most common trigger of oral mucosal infection is Candida albicans. Untreated tooth decay can cause a tooth abscess and a build-up of pus in and around the root of the tooth, causing severe pain.



Good oral hygiene and regular visits to the dentist are important. Brushing should be thorough and take enough time to remove all plaque on the teeth and in the spaces between the teeth. This is achieved by brushing several times a day with a soft, dense toothbrush and toothpaste and flossing or brushing between the teeth at least once a day. The use of a tongue scraper is also recommended.

Visiting the dentist

If your gums have been swollen for more than two weeks, you should immediately visit the dentist.

Tartar removal is carried out by a dentist or oral hygienist. They use a special ultrasonic instrument to remove all the tartar. Vibrations in the right frequency band cause the tartar to be removed from the tooth surface. Once the procedure is complete, the dentist then uses a fine polish to remove any staining and to take care of uneven surfaces. 

How can we relieve pain at home?

  • Brush and floss gently so as not to irritate the gums.
  • drink plenty of water to help stimulate saliva production. Saliva removes bacteria and to some extent prevents them from sticking to the teeth and mucous membranes.
  • place a warm compress on the face to reduce gum pain. A cold compress can help reduce swelling. rinse the mouth with an antiseptic mouthwash.
  • active oxygen-based oral hygiene products. This helps to remove soft plaque and reduce oral bacteria. The bubbles mechanically clean and debride inflamed areas and have a beneficial effect on the micro-environment of the damaged mucosa. Inflammation, bad breath, plaque on the tongue and teeth are reduced or removed. The solution easily reaches hard-to-reach areas under the gum or between the teeth that cannot be reached with a toothbrush. It helps to reduce inflammation and restore the affected surface more quickly through a process of oxygenation and regeneration.